The Constitution of India (IAST: Bhāratīya Saṃvidhāna) is the supreme law of India.The document lays down the framework demarcating fundamental political code, structure, procedures, powers, and duties of government institutions and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles, and the duties of citizens. It is the longest written constitution of any country on earth.B. R. Ambedkar, chairman of the drafting committee, is widely considered to be its chief architect.
It imparts constitutional supremacy (not parliamentary supremacy, since it was created by a constituent assembly rather than Parliament) and was adopted by its people with a declaration in its preamble.Parliament cannot override the constitution.
B. R. Ambedkar and Constitution of India on a 2015 postage stamp of India
It was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India on 26 November 1949 and became effective on 26 January 1950.The constitution replaced the Government of India Act 1935 as the country's fundamental governing document, and the Dominion of India became the Republic of India. To ensure constitutional autochthony, its framers repealed prior acts of the British parliament in Article 395.India celebrates its constitution on 26 January as Republic Day.
The constitution declares India a sovereign, socialist, secular,democratic republic, assuring its citizens justice, equality and liberty, and endeavours to promote fraternity.The original 1950 constitution is preserved in a helium-filled case at the Parliament House in New Delhi. The words "secular" and "socialist" were added to the preamble in 1976 during the Emergency.
Formation of the Constitution Assembly (in accordance with French practice).
The first meeting was held in the constitution hall (now the Central Hall of Parliament House). The 1st person to address was J. B. Kripalani, Sachchidananda Sinha became temporary president. (Demanding a separate state, the Muslim League boycotted the meeting.)
The Assembly appointed Rajendra Prasad as its president, H. C. Mukherjee as its vice-chairman and B. N. Rau as constitutional legal adviser. (There were initially 389 members in total, which declined to 299 after partition. Out of the 389 members, 292 were from government provinces, 4 from chief commissioner provinces and 93 from princely states.)
An 'Objective Resolution' was presented by Jawaharlal Nehru, laying down the underlying principles of the constitution. This later became the Preamble of the Constitution.
Objective resolution unanimously adopted.
National flag adopted.
Achieved independence. India split into the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan.
Committee appointed with B. R. Ambedkar as its Chairman. The other 6 members of committee were Munshi, Muhammed Sadulla, Alladi Krishnaswamy Iyer, N. Gopalaswami Ayyangar, Khaitan and Mitter.
Along with Harendra Coomar Mookerjee, V. T. Krishnamachari was also elected as second vice-president of Constituent Assembly.
The Constitution of India was passed and adopted by the assembly.
Last meeting of Constituent Assembly. The Constitution was signed and accepted. (with 395 Articles, 8 Schedules, 22 Parts)
The Constitution came into force. (The process took 2 years, 11 months and 18 days - at a total expenditure of ₹6.4 million to finish.)